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Several past studies have determined that eating soup prior to a meal can decrease hunger, increase fullness, and reduce subsequent meal intake. The reasons behind why soup has this effect, however, are still being tested.
Possible explanations include the temperature, amount consumed, fat content, energy content, and viscosity.
In a recent study published in Appetite in April 2007, Flood and Rolls investigated the effect the form of soup had on subsequent meal intake. They served the same soup recipe in four different ways: broth and vegetables served separately, chunky vegetable soup, chunky-pureed vegetable soup, and pureed vegetable soup. Sixty participants ate lunch at the laboratory for five consecutive weeks. Each week they were given a different soup or no soup at all prior to their meal.
Though the researchers found that having soup reduced subsequent meal intake by an average of 134 calories, they did not find that the type of soup had any significant impact.
While we still don’t know why soup helps to curb our appetites, we definitely recommend eating low-calorie soup to help reduce your intake at meals!
In late October of this year, the American Psychological Association released the results of a national survey on stress. They found that 1/3 of Americans are living with extreme stress, and that nearly half of Americans believe their stress levels have increased over the last five years. In addition, a majority of adults (63%) do not get the recommended eight hours of sleep per night, needed for good health, safety, and optimum performance, according to the National Sleep Foundation. In fact, over the past 40 years, Americans have cut their sleep time by 1-2 hours a night.
These trends towards more stress and less sleep coincide with Americans becoming heavier each year. It is no surprise then that recent research has found that both stress and sleep are correlated with weight gain.
Sleep Lack of sleep appears to affect hormone levels. Leptin is a hormone released by fat cells which signals the brain to stop eating. Ghrelin, a hormone made in the stomach, signals the body to continue eating. Studies have shown that in individuals who are sleep deprived (i.e. sleeping less than 8 hours per night), leptin levels are lower and ghrelin levels are higher. This combination is therefore likely to increase appetite. On top of all that, the brain interprets a drop in leptin as a sign of starvation. In order to protect itself, the body not only responds by increasing your appetite, but it also burns fewer calories.
But, that's not all. Lack of sleep also seems to affect insulin resistance and blood glucose levels. Insulin is the hormone that lets glucose (aka blood sugar) into the body's cells, to be burned for energy. When people are insulin resistant, the insulin does not work efficiently. This can increase the risk for heart attack, stroke, and diabetes.
Stress As with lack of sleep, being stressed also affects certain hormones. When the body is stressed, it releases adrenaline, along with corticotrophin releasing hormone (CRH) and cortisol. The adrenaline and CRH first affect the body by decreasing your appetite, since in the typical "fight or flight response" (when stress is highest), having to stop and eat would surely not help to save your life. However, this decreased appetite only lasts for a short time. Cortisol kicks in later. Its job is to help the body replenish its stores when the stress has passed, and cortisol's effects last a lot longer. Moreover, since the body is looking to quickly replenish its energy stores, it begins to crave sugar. Cortisol may also work to slow down your metabolism, since it is trying to quickly replenish lost nutritional stores.
Stress may also affect weight gain in other ways. Aside from cortisol's affect on the body, stress often leads to nervous energy. An increase in nervous energy in some people leads to nervous or emotional eating. Furthermore, stress is also largely associated with a lack of time. This lack of time may affect being able to prepare healthy meals, leading to an increase in fast food consumption. It may lead to less time to exercise. Or, it may lead to a lack of sleep, thus starting a vicious cycle...
What to do?
Try a stress-reducing activity such as listening to soothing music or going for a walk.
Maintain a regular bed and wake-time schedule, including weekends.
Get organized. Create lists and schedules to get work done. Delegate tasks when possible.
Stop eating 2-3 hours before bed. A calorie is a calorie, and eating late at night won't lead to weight gain. However, eating late at night can make you more uncomfortable when you lie down for bed and thus interrupt sleep.
Exercise! Exercise helps to reduce stress, makes it easier to fall asleep, and contributes to a more sounds sleep. Just try to complete your workout a few hours before bed.
Provided by Heather Bauer, a Registered Dietician (RD) specializing in the interrelation between eating habits, metabolism, and lifestyle. Visit nu-train for more tips and tricks and sign up for her monthly newsletter.
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